Chinese name: Fu pen zi
Latin Name: Rubus idaeus
Taste: Sweet, tart
Quotes from Chinese historical sources
Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry
Beekwilder J, Hall RD, de Vos CH.
Plant Research International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. email@example.com
In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. It is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and vegetables such as tomato, strawberry, kiwi and broccoli, represents a valuable contrasting source of potentially healthy compounds and can represent an important component of a balanced diet.
Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1501-12
Therapeutic constituents and actions of Rubus species.
Patel AV, Rojas-Vera J, Dacke CG.
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of which have been used traditionally as a uterine relaxant and stimulant during confinement, for the treatment of diarrhoea and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. Investigations of other Rubus species have been conducted in the last twenty-five years, and have shown possible application for a wide range of indications, including bacterial infections, anxiety, pain and inflammation.
Life Sci. 2005 May 27;77(2):194-204.
Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone.
Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shigenobu-cho, Onsen-gun, Ehime 791-0295, Japan. email@example.com
Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to clarify whether RK helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. To test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of RK for 10 weeks; 2) mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and subsequently fed the same high-fat diet containing 1% RK for the next 5 weeks. RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes.